The most common mechanisms of HPV infection: how is human papillomavirus transmitted?

Papillomavirus infection (PVI) - belongs to the group of anthropogenic pathogens (transmitted exclusively from person to person).

The route of infection is determined by several options for the development of events: through sexual contact, through blood, by home means (with a latent form of the disease - "wart").

how human papillomavirus is transmitted

Methods of infection

As mentioned above, there are only three main ways of infection - through sexual contact, through blood, through everyday life.

By penetrating the protective barrier of the skin, mucous membranes and circulatory system, HPV has an extremely negative impact on the patient's health.

Usually a person experiences:

  1. Constant weakness.
  2. Feeling of nausea, heaviness in the hypochondrium.
  3. Pain syndrome.
  4. Problems with the urinary and reproductive system (difficulty urinating, acute paroxysmal pain in the perineum).
  5. Burning sensation in the groin.
  6. Dizziness on the background of frequent fever.
  7. General reduction of the body's protective functions (frequent colds, long recovery period after illness).
  8. Itchy skin, which is accompanied by the appearance of papilloma.

In order to recognize the presence of a viral infection and in time to consult a doctor, it is necessary to take into account the prerequisites for the occurrence of this disease.

Prerequisites for infection

The most common preconditions for the appearance of HPV include:

  1. Weakened immunity.
  2. The presence of other chronic diseases that undermine the body's resistance to any external attacks.
  3. We are talking about hepatitis, human immune deficiency (HIV), cardiovascular disease, genetic abnormalities, rare hereditary forms of the disease.
  4. Indiscriminate sexual relations.
  5. Unprotected sexual intercourse.
  6. Infection from a loved one in everyday life: when using dishes, bed linen, towels, with a kiss, hugs.
  7. Use of public places for culture and recreation.
  8. Visiting beauty salons.
  9. Sharing personal belongings: combs, manicure accessories.


Timely vaccination will protect against the most aggressive types of virus.

Transmission routes

The papilloma virus is transmitted through bodily contact, transplacentally (transplanted from infected surfaces), using cerebrospinal fluid (blood, saliva, sweat).

Therefore, if there is a sick person in the family, it is necessary to constantly treat all surfaces with a special antiseptic, follow strict rules of personal contact and monitor the condition of the skin (even microcracks can become the initial area of damage).

Can HPV be infected through home contact?

Papillomavirus infection is transmitted perfectly through common objects as well as saliva. This should not be forgotten if there is a sick person in the house.

Distribution mechanism:

  1. Kisses, hugs. With saliva and sweat, PVI passes from one person to another. This is possible due to the fact that the virus moves freely through the mucous membranes, is present in saliva and cerebrospinal fluid.
  2. When using personal hygiene items belonging to the patient.
  3. When shaking hands. Microtraumas of the skin can be excellent conduits of infection.
  4. When using common utensils.
  5. When transferring items from an infected person to a healthy person (this type of infection is very resistant to environmental factors).

Can HPV be sexually transmitted?

Because mucous membranes, skin, and their derivatives (secretions, blood vessels, saliva) are carriers of genetic material, it is possible to become infected with the human papillomavirus through sexual contact; as well as when using public baths, saunas.

Transmission mechanism:

  1. Directly during sexual intercourse (this is especially true for oral and anal sex).
  2. When using shared showers, baths, saunas. Without proper antiseptic and antibacterial treatment, such sites are a breeding ground for all kinds of infections.
  3. When using underwear and partner's clothes (especially for women who like to wear men's shirts, T-shirts, shorts, family shorts).

Is the virus transmitted from mother to child?

Transmission of infection from mother to child is called "vertical transplant route". This type of papillomavirus transmission is one of the most dangerous, as it injures the child's body and intellect.

After suffering from HPV, especially in the early stages (1 trimester), doctors insist on abortion for medical reasons.


Self-infection is only possible if untreated hygiene items are used. For example: razors, toothbrushes, nail scissors and similar items.

With this form of transmission of the papilloma virus, the patient does not experience discomfort for a long time and leads a normal life. And when the first symptoms of the disease appear (which are very similar to banal fatigue), he ignores them without going to the doctor.

What types of HPV are the most dangerous?

The most dangerous types of human papillomavirus (HPV) include types 16 and 18. They have strains that provoke the appearance of malignant neoplasms - cancerous tumors that, when they grow, can metastasize.

The most common manifestation of exposure to a strain of the virus is the appearance of such diseases as: cervical cancer, infertility, lung and bronchial changes, acute immunoglobulin deficiency.

Note! Cervical cancer can only occur due to the most aggressive form of the virus. Most papillomas are not dangerous.


A number of the most sophisticated hardware techniques help to detect the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the body.

  • Colposcopy. The colposcope is a medical device that allows you to accurately determine changes in the mucous membranes of the genitourinary system: to detect inflammation, damage and spread of viruses, fungal bacteria. Its use to determine the presence of HPV in the body is used to definitively confirm the diagnosis. This device is able: at 30 times magnification to detect the source of inflammation, to determine its nature, to take a scraping directly in the affected area.
  • PCR study. This laboratory method is a differential diagnosis of this type of disease. PCR makes it difficult to determine the type of virus, but also the path of infection. This analysis requires sampling of biomaterial: blood, urine, semen.
  • Digene test. Modern diagnostic technique based on the removal of a small part of the affected skin for examination. Using this approach, medical professionals can say 100% exactly what type of virus is present in the body, what is its concentration, whether it is in reactive form, to which antiviral drugs it is sensitive.
  • cytology. This is a study of the problem at the cellular level. To do this, remove the upper layer of the papilloma, take a separate section of the mucosa. Using a heavy microscope and a basic set of reagents, laboratory technicians examine the behavior of the virus, its effect on the body (make a prediction), the degree of damage to the body's internal systems.
  • Histological diagnosis. The purpose of this technique is to study morphological changes in tissues. The material for the examination is taken with the help of a biopsy.


Treatment of human papillomavirus includes strict adherence to sexual abstinence, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunomodulatory drugs, vitamin complex and drugs to reduce the effect of the virus on the body.

You should also restrict healthy people's access to personal belongings, hygiene products, utensils and bedding. When malignant neoplasms caused by a virus appear, corrective treatment or surgery is performed with a long period of rehabilitation.

Ways to prevent the disease

The main ways to prevent HPV are:

  • Observance of the rules for sanitary and household provision of living space.
  • The use of contraceptives.
  • Control over the state of one's own health by specialized specialists.
  • The use of personal care products strictly for their intended purpose, without transferring them to third parties.
  • Do not travel to places with an increased risk of infection: baths, saunas, swimming pools, water parks, massage and beauty salons.
  • Protect the skin from interaction with a large number of external factors.
  • Protecting one's own health by isolating patients from all kinds of infectious and viral diseases, skin diseases.

It is simply impossible to deal with a complex viral infection on your own. Medical control, timely appeal for qualified help to a wide group of specialists will be the first and most serious step to deal with the existing problem.

If such a problem occurs, one of the family members should be routinely diagnosed and follow all the doctor's instructions to avoid spreading the virus. In addition, we should not forget about precautions that will help prevent infection.